The Ukulele: Unveiling its Portuguese Roots and Musical Charms

by Madonna

The enchanting sounds of the ukulele, often referred to as ‘uke,’ have a rich history intertwined with Portuguese heritage, tracing back to the 1880s in the Hawaiian Islands. Legend has it that the nickname “ukulele” was bestowed upon Englishman Edward William Purvis, an officer in the court of King Kalākaua, owing to his small stature, fidgety demeanor, and adept playing skills.

The ukulele, a small acoustic stringed instrument, has its roots in various Portuguese counterparts such as the machete, cavaquinho, timple, and rajão. These instruments were brought to Hawaii by Portuguese immigrants from Madeira, the Azores, and Cape Verde. The first ukuleles, crafted in 1879, featured strings made from sheep, cattle, or goat gut.


Credited as the pioneer ukulele makers are Madeiran cabinet makers Manuel Nunes, José do Espírito Santo, and Augusto Dias. Arriving in Hawaii in 1879, they swiftly captivated the locals with nightly street concerts, marking the inception of the ukulele’s presence on the islands.


In its early days, the ukulele was meticulously handmade, limiting its availability. The instrument’s evolution saw the introduction of wood-cutting and shaping machines, with Manuel Nunes playing a pivotal role in innovating the ukulele’s design and sound. Different tuning patterns were introduced to enhance chord formation, and the use of koa wood contributed to a lighter and more resonant tone.


The ukulele’s body is predominantly crafted from various woods worldwide, including Hawaiian koa, maple, walnut, rosewood, or myrtle. The choice of wood significantly influences the instrument’s sound quality, with mahogany being revered for its warm and mellow tone.

Renowned British entertainer George Formby, a ukulele player in the 1930s and 40s, contributed to the instrument’s popularity, often incorporating a banjo-style hybrid into his performances. Formby’s renditions, including hits like ‘When I’m Cleaning Windows’ and ‘I’m Leaning on a Lamp-post,’ showcased the ukulele’s versatility.

The ukulele’s appeal lies not only in its musical versatility but also in its compact size, making it easy to hold. With various sizes available, from soprano to bass ukuleles, beginners typically start with a concert ukulele. Holding the ukulele involves using the right hand for strumming and the left hand for fretting, even for left-handed players.

The most common style of ukulele playing involves strumming, where players use their fingers or a pick to create rhythmic patterns. This style, prominent in pop, rock, and folk music, contributes to the ukulele’s widespread popularity. As the ukulele continues to enchant with its harmonious melodies, its enduring connection to Portuguese roots adds a layer of cultural depth to its musical journey.


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